EU Research and Innovation Partnerships have been used since FP6 to optimise the contribution of public and private players in achieving sustainable growth and competitiveness and addressing societal challenges, and to ensure that national policies and EU policy are mutually consistent. The discussions at the Informal Meeting of Ministers of July 2017 resulted in a general recognition by the Member States of the continued relevance of Partnerships, and called for a reformed approach tackling the complexity of the landscape and ensuring its coherence and optimal coordination.

The Council Conclusions of 1 December 2017 (18-20) provide guidance for rationalising the partnership landscape: R&I partnerships in the FP should be implemented based on the principles of EU added value, transparency, openness, impact, leverage effect, long-term financial commitment of all the involved parties, flexibility, coherence, and complementarity with EU, national and regional initiatives. All partnership initiatives should have an exit strategy from FP funding.

As a follow-up, an ERAC Ad-hoc Working Group on Partnerships was established in 2018. Its mandate was to propose e.g. criteria for selecting, implementing, monitoring and phasing out the R&I partnerships based on the guiding principles, options for rationalising the R&I partnership landscape and the set-up and implementation of this process.

Horizon Europe will follow an overall policy approach for all kinds of Partnerships (e.g. ERA-NETs, JTIs, FET Flagships, EIT/KICs). There will be 3 types of European Partnerships:

  1. Co-programmed partnerships

Based on Memoranda of Understanding or contractual arrangements; implemented independently by the partners and by Horizon Europe; cPPP model;

  1. Co-funded partnerships

Based on a joint programme agreed and implemented by partners; commitment of partners for financial and in kind contributions; ERA-NET, EJP, FET Flagships model);

  1. Institutionalised partnerships

Based on long term dimension and need for high integration; based on Articles 185 or 187 TFEU and the EIT Regulation.

In May 2019, the Commission launched a consultation of Member States on possible candidates for European Partnerships as part of a strategic coordinating process. The feedback was summarised and the final list of partnerships is currently discussed at the Shadow Strategic Programme Committee. The list of candidate European Partnerships is found in Annex 7 of the Orientations towards the first Strategic Plan for Horizon Europe.

In May 2020 the Commission started to publish detailed descriptions of partnerships (Draft Partnership Proposals). Member States will be invited to provide their tentative commitments by mid October 2020. Commitments of Industry partners will be collected in autumn as well.

On 23 February 2021 the European Commission presented its proposals for 9 Joint Undertakings based on Art. 187 TFEU and a proposal on the European Partnership on Metrology based on Art. 185 TFEU.

A new partnership proposal on "Pandemic preparedness and Societal Resilience" is currently being prepared.