Joint Programming, in its specific meaning of the Joint Programming Process launched in 2008 by a Communication of the Commission and subsequent Conclusions of the Council, is a research and innovation policy concept driven by societal challenges. Its aim is to tackle grand societal challenges through more efficient use of resources, by the alignment of funding at national level and through decreasing fragmentation in the European Research Area (ERA). It is a structured and strategic process whereby Member States agree, on a voluntary basis and in a partnership approach, on common visions and Strategic Research Agendas (SRA). On a variable geometry basis, Member States commit to Joint Programming Initiatives (JPIs) where they implement joint Strategic Research Agendas together. Ten Joint Programming Initiatives (JPIs) have been launched to date. They have established their own governance structures and have elaborated their SRAs. The current challenge for the JPIs is the effective implementation of the SRAs through joint activities, and the alignment of funding at national and European level.