30 Nov 2020
EU R&D expenditure at 2.19% of GDP in 2019
On 27 November 2020, EUROSTAT published the latest figures on Research & Development expenditure in 2019. R&D expenditure and intensity are two of the key indicators used to monitor resources devoted to science and technology worldwide. In 2019, EU Member States spent over € 306 billion on R&D. The R&D intensity (R&D expenditure as a percentage of GDP) stood at 2.19% in 2019, compared with 2.18% in 2018. Ten years earlier (2009), R&D intensity was 1.97%.
In 2019, Sweden (3.39%), followed by Austria (3.19%) and Germany (3.17%) were the countries with the highest R&D intensity. They were ahead of Denmark (2.96%), Belgium (2.89%) and Finland (2.79%), all registering R&D expenditure close to 3.0% of GDP. The countries with the highest increase recorded were Belgium (+0.89 percentage points), Poland (+0.66), the Czech Repbulic (+0.65) and Greece (+0.64).
With respect to other major economies, R&D intensity in the EU was much lower than in South Korea (4.52% in 2018), Japan (3.28% in 2018) and the United States (2.82% in 2018), while it was at about the same level as in China (2.06% in 2018), higher than in the UK (1.76%) and much higher than in Russia (1.03%) and Turkey (1.03% in 2018).
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